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译讯第33期

文章来源:翻译室  发布时间:2015-10-10

时政要闻
习近平主席对美国进行国事访问
聚焦北京2022冬奥会
科技前沿
交流园地
 
2015年9月30日
Wednesday, September 30th, 2015

河南省人民政府外事侨务办公室
翻译室

======================================================================
时政要闻  News Review

 
国际新闻:International
  1. 8月4日,为加强应对全球变暖问题,美国总统奥巴马正式宣布了一项具有争议的计划,该计划旨在减少美国发电厂碳排放量。奥巴马表示,气候变化是当前世界面临的最大威胁,该计划要求,到2030年,全美发电厂的碳排放量应在2005年基础上削减32%,这将会减少美国家庭的能源支出,同时提高全美人民的健康水平。
    US President Barack Obama stepped up efforts to fight global warming at the formal unveiling of his administration's controversial plan to cut carbon emissions from US power plants on August 4th. Declaring climate change the greatest threat facing the world, Obama said the regulation requiring the power sector to cut its emissions by 32% from 2005 levels by 2030 would reduce Americans' energy bills and improve the health of vulnerable populations nationwide.
    2. 9月21日,俄罗斯总统普京在会见来访的以色列总理内塔尼亚胡时表示,莫斯科在中东问题上将始终保持负责任的态度。内塔尼亚胡此次到访主要就俄不断加大介入叙力度以及中东地区的其他安全问题与普京交换看法。双方都同意,保持中东地区稳定符合双方利益,内塔尼亚胡对双方的相互尊重和开放性对话表示赞赏。
    Moscow's position on the Middle East would always remain responsible, Russian President Vladimir Putin on September 21st, told visiting Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The prime minister came to Russia to mainly discuss with Putin Russia's growing involvement in Syria as well as other security issues in the Middle East region. Both sides agreed that they share common interests of ensuring stability in the Middle East, while Netanyahu praised the mutual respect and openness of the dialogue with Moscow.
    3. 9月22日,欧盟成员国政府大多数表决通过了关于重新安置12万难民的议案,此举将有助于改善欧盟部分国家面临的日益严峻的难民问题。欧盟表示,所有参与此次重新安置项目的国家都会一次性获得每名难民6000欧元的安置补助。然而,这项议案受到包括丹麦和英国在内的部分成员国的强烈反对,它们不会参与安置行动。
    The governments of European Union (EU) member countries approved the proposal to relocate 120,000 migrants by a majority vote on September 22nd. This will help to improve the situation of refugees facing some of the EU members. EU said the member states participating in the mechanism will receive a lump sum of 6, 000 Euros for each relocated person. However, the proposal was outright resisted by some member states, such as Denmark and the United Kingdom; they will not participate in this decision.
国内新闻:China
    4. 第十五届国际田联世界田径锦标赛8月22日在北京国家体育场隆重开幕,来自世界207个国家的约2000名运动员将同场竞技。中国国家主席习近平在开幕式上宣布该项赛事开幕,出席开幕式的还有国际奥委会主席托托马斯·巴赫和国际田联主席拉米·迪亚克。此次田径世锦赛上,中国代表团收获1金7银1铜,创造了参加世锦赛以来的最佳战绩。
    The 15th World Athletics Championships opened at the National Stadium in Beijing on August 22nd, with about 2,000 athletes from 207 countries around the world taking part in. Chinese President Xi Jinping declared it open at the ceremony. Among those present at the ceremony were International Olympic Committee (IOC) President Thomas Bach and International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) President Lamine Diack. Chinese Delegation won 1 gold medal, 7 silver medals and 1 bronze medal in this event, and the best since the first attendance of World Athletics Championships.
    5. 9月3日,中国人民抗日战争暨世界反法西斯战争胜利70周年活动正式在北京拉开序幕,此次活动由国务院总理李克强主持,国家主席习近平出席并发表讲话,并与来华国家元首、政府首脑及联合国等国际组织代表一起观看了阅兵仪式。此次纪念活动旨在铭记历史,缅怀在战争中牺牲的生命,珍惜和平和展望未来。
    On September 3rd, the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People's War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression and the World Anti-Fascist War kicked off in Beijing. The ceremony was presided by Premier Li Keqiang. President Xi Jinping attended the ceremony and delivered a speech, and observed the military parade with heads of state and government and representatives of the United Nations and other international organizations. The aim of the commemoration is to remember history and honor all those who have laid down their lives during the war, to cherish peace and also to look towards the future.
    6. 9月22日,国务院总理李克强主持会议,听取国务院天津港“8•12”瑞海公司危险品仓库特别重大火灾爆炸事故调查组工作进展情况汇报。此次爆炸共造成165人死亡,其中包括99名消防人员和11名民警,给港口区域带来了严重损失。李克强总理明确要求彻查原因、严肃追责。
    Premier Li Keqiang headed a meeting on September 22nd, for a briefing of the report by the State Council investigation team on the explosion of Tianjin hazardous chemicals warehouse owned by Ruihai International Logistics. Huge explosions occurred on August 12th, killing 165 people, including 99 firefighters and 11 police officers, and devastating the port area. Premier Li stated clearly that the investigation should be thoroughly done and serious accountability would be required.
    7. 9月2日,来华出席中国人民抗日战争暨世界反法西斯战争胜利70周年纪念活动的塔吉克斯坦总统埃莫马利•拉赫蒙在北京钓鱼台国宾馆会见省长谢伏瞻,并共同见证河南省人民政府与塔吉克斯坦哈特隆州政府、中国国家开发银行《关于融资推动农业产业项目合作谅解备忘录》的签署。
On September 2nd, visiting President Emomali Rakhmon of the Republic of Tajikistan for the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People's War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression and the World Anti-Fascist War met with Governor Xie Fuzhan of Henan province at Diaoyutai State Guesthouse, and they witnessed the signing of The MOU on Promoting the Agricultural Cooperation through financing among Henan province, Khatlon State of Tajikistan and China Development Bank.
    8. 9月17日,郑州国际陆港开发建设有限公司发布消息,自2013年7月18日首班运行以来,郑欧班列已累计开行200班,总累计货值9.67亿美元,货重8.76万吨,综合指标继续保持全国21列中欧班列首位。
    On September 17th, Zhengzhou International Hub Development and Construction Co.,Ltd released that since the first Zhengzhou-Europe Block Train was opened on July 18th, 2013, 200 block trains have been operated, with total cargo value of 967 million US dollars and total cargo weight of 87,600 tons. Composite indicator continues to be the first amongst all 21 China-Europe block trains.(供稿人:高阳、宋美扬子)

 
习近平主席对美国进行国事访问 
President Xi’s State Visit to US

 
    应美国总统奥巴马邀请,国家主席习近平于9月22日至25日对美国进行国事访问,并于26日至28日赴纽约联合国总部出席联合国成立70周年系列峰会。这是习主席首次对美国进行国事访问和首次到访联合国总部,受到中美两国以及整个国际社会的高度关注。
    Invited by US President Barack Obama, Chinese President Xi Jinping paid a state visit to US from September 22 to 25, and visited UN headquarter in New York from September 26 to 28 to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations. This is President Xi’s first state visit to the United States and his first visit to the UN headquarters. The visit attracts great attention from people in China, the United States and the wider international community. 
    1. 随行访问人员和企业
     Accompanying officials and entrepreneurs:
    主席夫人彭丽媛、中央政治局委员、中央政策研究室主任王沪宁,中央政治局委员、中央书记处书记、中办主任栗战书,国务委员杨洁篪、外交部部长王毅等陪同访问。此外阿里巴巴(Alibaba)、万向集团(Wanxiang Group)、腾讯(Tencent)、联想集团(Lenovo)、新奥能源(ENN Energy)、中远集团(COSCO Group)、中国建筑(CSCEC)、双汇集团(Shuanghui Group)、中国银行(BOC)、工商银行(ICBC)、伊利集团(Yili Group)、百度(Baidu)、海尔集团(Haier Group)等15家中国企业的高管随行访美。15家企业均为各行业领军企业,涉及互联网、金融、汽车、能源、食品、建筑、化工、制造业等多个领域。
    2. 访问主要议程: 
    Major activities:

    922:在西雅图参加美中关系全国委员会(National Committee on United States-China Relations)和美中贸易全国委员会(U.S.-China Business Council)举办的晚宴,并发表重要的政策演讲;
    923:参加由芝加哥大学保尔森基金会(Paulson Institute)主席、前财政部长小亨利·M·保尔森(Henry M.Paulson Jr.)举办的圆桌讨论,参观波音(Boeing)位于华盛顿州埃弗里特的工厂,访问塔科马市的林肯高中(Lincoln High School),出席由微软(Microsoft)和中国互联网协会举办的中美互联网行业论坛(U.S.-China Internet Industry Forum)。 
    924:在白宫会晤奥巴马总统、国务卿约翰·克里(John Kerry)和奥巴马的国家安全顾问苏珊·E·赖斯(Susan E. Rice)。
    925:在白宫接受21响礼炮的欢迎,并同奥巴马总统举行联合记者招待会,前往国会山会见国会领袖,并出席晚上在白宫举行的国宴。
    926:前往纽约,参加在联合国总部(UN headquarter)举行的活动。
    927:在中国和联合国将共同举办的“全球妇女峰会:从承诺到行动”中致开幕词,并担任第一场会议的主席。
    928:在联合国成立70周年峰会上发表讲话。
 
    3. 访问的主要目的:
      Major Objectives
    首先,这是一次增信释疑之旅。中美携手合作,将惠及两国,造福世界;反之,中美摩擦交恶,则将伤及双方,影响全球。
    First, President Xi’s visit helps enhance trust and reduce misgivings between China and the United States. China and the US working together benefits both countries and the world at large. Frictions in relations undermine both countries’ interests and affect the wider world.
    其次,这是一次聚焦合作之旅。中美之间的全方位和战略性合作,正在为两国关系乃至全球的和平发展提供正能量和新动力。
    Secondly, President Xi’s visit focuses on cooperation between China and the United States. The all-dimensional and strategic cooperation between China and the US has provided new drivers to boost not just bilateral relations, but also the cause of global peace and development.
    第三,这是一次面向人民之旅。中美友好的动力在人民,根基在人民。面向美国人民,亲和普通民众,是习主席此次访美的一大特色,也是一大亮点。
    Thirdly, President Xi’s visit is a people-first visit. China-US friendly relations are powered by the people, and rooted in the people. A major highlight of President Xi’s visit to the US is his extensive outreach to the American people.
    第四,这是一次开创未来之旅。习主席这次访问不仅要总结过去,增进互信,更重要的是与美方一道,着眼长远,开辟未来。
    Fourthly, President Xi’s visit is future-oriented. During the visit, the two sides not only take stock of the past and enhance mutual trust, but more importantly, they work together to articulate a vision for the future.
 
    习近平向联合国赠送“和平尊”
    Presenting Zun of Peace to the United Nations
    为纪念联合国成立70周年,中国政府决定向联合国赠送一座“和平尊”。
   This Zun of Peace is presented by the Chinese government as a gift to the United Nations to commemorate its 70th anniversary.
   “和平尊”以中国古代青铜器中的“尊”为原型。“尊”取“敬重”之义,在中国传统文化中是十分隆重的礼器。我们今天以“尊”为礼,表达中国对联合国的重视和支持,也是13亿多中国人民对联合国的美好祝福。
    Zun of Peace is modeled after Zun, a bronze ritual object used in ancient China. Zun means reverence in Chinese, and this bronze ritual object is highly important in traditional Chinese culture. This gift represents China's high regard and support for the United Nations and the best wishes of the over 1.3 billion Chinese people to the organization.
    “和平尊”以“中国红”为主色调,热情庄重。顶部的龙饰象征守望和平。两侧的象首、凤鸟寓意天下太平,人民安康。尊体饰以中国传统吉祥纹饰,辅以丝绸之路等元素,传承和平发展、交流合作的理念。尊身展翅高飞的七只和平鸽,代表联合国为世界和平而奋斗的70年。
    This work is mainly in the color of “Chinese red”, giving a warm and solemn touch to it. The dragons at the top represent guardians of peace, and the elephants and phoenixes on both sides convey wishes for prosperity across the world. The whole work is adorned with traditional auspicious patterns and elements of the Silk Road, representing China's vision of peace, development, exchanges and cooperation. The seven flying doves symbolize 70 years of the United Nations' dedication to world peace.   (节选自外交部网站;供稿人:丁锐)

 
聚焦北京2022冬奥会

 
    冬季奥林匹克运动会是一项国际性的重大体育赛事,每四年举办一次. 相比夏季奥运会而言,冬奥会的项目主要是在冰雪上进行。第一届冬奥会于1924年在法国夏蒙尼举办。今年7月31日,北京及其协办城市河北省张家口市在国际奥委会投票中以44比40险胜哈萨克斯坦阿拉木图,赢得了2022年冬季奥运会的举办权。
    The Winter Olympic Games is a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years. Unlike the Summer Olympics, the Winter Olympics feature sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympics was held in Chamonix, France in 1924. Beijing, with co-host Zhangjiakou in neighboring Hebei province, edged out Almaty, Kazakhstan, by 44-40 in the IOC vote on July 31st,won  the hosting right of the 2022 Winter Olympic Games
 
    中国申奥代表团精彩陈述(节选)
 
    中国国务院副总理刘延东:
    中国政府全力支持北京申办2022冬奥会和冬残奥会,我们将提供财政、法律、安保、医疗保健和组织运行等各方面的保障。2022的冬奥会如果在北京举办,将带动三亿中国人,特别是北京青少年参与冰雪运动。冬奥会会激发中国人的激情,增强他们的体质。作为一个负责任的国家,中国将会实现我们的一切承诺。
    Chinese government fully supports Beijing's bid for 2022 Winter Olympic Games and will provide all kinds of safeguards for the Games, including finance, law, security, health care and organizational operations. The Games will inspire 300 million Chinese, especially young people in Beijing, to join the Winter Sports’ fun if the city wins the 2022 bid. The Games can ignite their passion, and make them healthier. As a responsible country, China will meet all preparatory pledges.
 
    中国奥委会主席、国家体育总局局长刘鹏:
    12个场馆中有11个是2008奥运遗产,大幅度降低了办赛成本。延庆和张家口所有的新建场馆都符合当地的长远发展规划。我们的赛事组织能力,包括举办亚洲冬季运动会,将为北京2022冬奥会和冬残奥会的圆满成功提供最可靠的保证。
    Eleven of the 12 venues in Beijing are already 2008 Olympic Games legacy venues, substantially reducing costs. And all new venues planned in Yanqing and Zhangjiakou aligns with the long-term regional development plans. Our proven event-organizing capability, including holding the Asian Winter Games, will provide a reliable platform for successful 2022 winter games.
 
    国际奥委会副主席、中国奥委会副主席于再清:
中国有一句古谚语,千里之行始于足下,今天在奥林匹克历程中将会迈出历史性的一步。迈出这一步,你们选择北京,举办一届以运动员为中心的奥运会,为冰雪运动长远发展奠定基础。
     We have a saying in China, a journey of thousand miles starts with a single step. Today a historical step in the journey of Olympic movement will be taken. You have the choice to choose the city who will not only deliver an athlete-centered Olympic Games, but who will also build a foundation for ice sports development.
 
    北京冬奥申委主席、北京市市长王安顺:
    北京是全世界最受欢迎的旅游目的地之一,2014年境外游客达到了500万人次,全市拥有超过11万间星级酒店客房。为充分满足商业和休闲旅游的需要,我们已经和132家酒店签订了协议,房间的数量将比国际奥委会要求的高出30%。现有的住宿设施可让冬奥会的客户有更好的选择。
     As one of the world's top tourist destinations, Beijing has received almost five million international tourists in 2014 and the city has more than 110,000 star-rated hotel rooms. To cater all the Games clients and spectators, Beijing has signed binding agreements with 132 hotels, exceeding the IOC room requirements by 30 percent. The existing accommodation would be able to offer them better choices.
  
    北京冬奥会比赛项目一览:
    Short Track Speed Skating 短道速滑
    Speed Skating 速度滑冰
    Figure Skating 花样滑冰
    Ice Hockey 冰球
    Curling 冰壶
    Bobsleigh 雪车
    Skeleton俯式冰橇
    Freestyle Skiing自由式滑雪
    Snowboarding单板滑雪
    Biathlon冬季两项
    Nordic Combined北欧两项
    Luge雪橇
    Alpine Skiing高山滑雪
    Cross-Country Skiing越野滑雪
    Ski Jumping 跳台滑雪
(摘自北京申奥委官网、中国日报网;供稿人:高阳)


 
科技前沿

   首款"偷不走的自行车"问世
    A trio of Chilean engineers says they have found a way to thwart determined thieves with what they claim is the world's first 'unstealable bike.' The design, called the Yerka, looks like an average bike, but the bottom tube of the frame can be split into two parts and wrapped around a pole. According its creators, the frame can be dismantled and reconnected to make a lock in just 10 seconds. Once the bike's seat tube forms a lock, the only way to steal the bike would be to cut through it, destroying it in the process. The Yerka is the creation of Cristóbal Cabello, 22, Andrés Roi Eggers, 23 and Juan José Monsalve, 24. The design was first announced in November, but last week, the team said they had put in their first order to produce 300 Yerkas. While an investment of $100,000 from a state enterprise fund helped the project along, they raised most of their funds on crowdfunding site Indiegogo. The start-up sold the first 100 bikes for $400 then increased the price to $500. In future it will rise to $600, according to a CNN report. While they call it the world's first unstealable bike, critics have previously said the lock could be picked or the bike easily destroyed. Thieves might also be happy simply to get the handlebars or front wheel. But the team says that if they weren't working on something as revolutionary as this, they would have their critics. They also add that the wheels have anti-theft nuts that can only be opened with a special key. The designers are now working on an app that will let users open up their bike using the smart phone.
    三名智利工程师宣称发明了世界上首款“偷不走的自行车”,他们表示,这下那些信誓旦旦的偷车贼肯定没辙了。这款自行车名为“尤科”,看上去跟普通自行车没什么两样,但车身底杆可以分成两部分,环绕在一根柱子上。发明者称,拆开车身主架、重新组装成一把锁,这一过程仅需10秒。一旦自行车车座杆形成一把锁,偷车的唯一办法就是把车切开,这样做的话自行车也就毁了。“尤科”自行车是由22岁的克里斯托波尔•卡贝略、23岁的安德烈斯•罗伊和24岁的胡安•乔斯•蒙萨尔维共同发明的。这个设计在去年11月份首次公布。上周,这个团队表示,他们接到了第一份订单,首批300辆“尤科”自行车已投入生产。一家国有企业已投资10万美元来赞助这个项目,但是他们大部分的资金是在众筹网站Indiegogo上筹集到的。这个初创公司以400美元单价销售了首批100辆自行车,之后提价至500美元。据CNN报道,未来该品牌自行车价格将升至600美元。他们宣称“尤科”为世界上首辆“偷不走的自行车”,然而曾有人批评称,车锁是可以被撬开的,而且自行车也很容易毁坏。只拿到车把或前轮,小偷们也照样很开心。不过,这个团队表示,如果研制的产品不够革新,他们也会遭受质疑的,他们还说车轮有防盗螺母,只有专用钥匙才能打开它。设计者们目前正在开发应用程序,如此一来,用户可以用智能手机给自行车开锁。
(转载自中国日报网;供稿人:宋美扬子)

 
 交流园地

 
    翻译贵在不译                       
    翻译服务于沟通,目的在交流、传意,更应争取传神。
    一、止戈为武,不战而屈人之兵
    小标题看似风马牛不相及,实则是想说我首先是受这句话启发。
A lion’s teeth are bared, and his enemies simply shudder at his roar. 气场能量场一出来,省去不少事。
    翻译除了言辞表达,表情举止、气度风采也在传达着信息。一个好的翻译展现着大国的自信。外交是妥协,译员很有气势,对方感觉到不好施压,可能有些话就咽回去了,自然就不必翻译了。因语言外的素质,达到“不译”的效果。这里并非夸大译员的作用,外事活动的影响因素很多,译员只是一个方面。
    二、礼宾礼仪,有所不为有所为
    金正昆的书里说学礼仪用礼仪要有所不为有所为。知道什么不该说,什么不该做,不犯错,不出丑,是礼仪的最低要求。做到这条,基本成功一半。
    同理,译员应该清楚知道什么不能说,不必译。这比口若悬河、滔滔不绝,更符合译员的身份。
    三、大道至简,大音稀声
    苹果设计理念,Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.(出自《乔布斯传》)
    苹果的界面用户友好,其产品不用说明书,用户凭直觉思维intuitive thinking就知道怎么使用。其实让一个电子产品做功,其总劳动量是一定的,设计师工程师思维强度大了,消耗卡路里多了,用户才可以不费力。
    译员的工作也是,译员水平高,加工处理信息能力强,构思组织译语付出劳动多了,脱口而出的译语就会简洁明了,brief and to the point, 而且更容易让人理解和接受。比如周总理介绍《梁祝》时的一句“Chinese Romeo and Juliet”,引发全场笑声和赞叹。
    四、千言万语,不若莫言
    在此,我讲一个亲身经历的故事。在巩义市直幼儿园给外教当陪同翻译时,我与之打交道的外教是个年轻的菲律宾女孩,性格活泼开朗。有一次,她上完课,碰巧生活老师送水果来。那是给整个班的一大盆葡萄。外教做个鬼脸,说I’ll take these away. 我知道她只是恶作剧,逗一下在场的小朋友。她双手端起葡萄就往外走,我呢,half shocked and half amused,给个瞪大眼睛同时忍住笑的表情,没有翻译她这句话。其实也没有译的必要,大家都看到了她在干什么,配合并欣赏她的表演,娱乐小朋友就行。小家伙们一副惊呆了又很担心的神态,她目的达到了,立即笑着把葡萄放回了原处。整个过程极短,只有一二十秒,如果我出声,会破坏气氛,而且等我说完,葡萄多半已经放回,喜剧效果会大打折扣。
    不同语言背景,不同思维方式。译员会引导服务对象的思考走向,善于在两种语言的思维模式中转换,让双方渐渐想到一块儿去,不仅仅是译员能预测接下来讲话内容而有利于译语输出,更重要的是能促成讲话交谈的目标达成。如果译员不需要多说,双方达成合意,当然是上策。法国作家圣艾修伯里的《小王子》里有句话:“语言是引起误会的根源。”恰到好处,不多一句,是一个优秀译员应该拿捏得当的尺度。(供稿人:巩义市外侨办 张舒)
 
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