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译讯第34期

文章来源:翻译室  发布时间:2015-11-17

时政要闻 
News Review
 
国际新闻:International
    1. 10月5日,85岁的药学家屠呦呦和另外两位科学家共同荣获2015诺贝尔生理学或医学奖,成为我国在该领域首位诺贝尔奖得主,该奖项肯定了他们在寄生虫疾病药物研究方面的工作。屠呦呦因发现了青蒿素而获奖,该药物能够治疗疟疾,并已挽救了全球尤其是发展中国家的数百万生命。
    Eighty-five-year old Chinese pharmacologist Tu Youyou became China's first medicine Nobel laureate on October 5. She was one of the three scientists awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work in developing effective drugs against parasitic diseases. Tu was honored for developing Artemisinin, a drug therapy for malaria that has saved millions of lives across the globe, especially in the developing world.
 
    2. 应英国女王伊丽莎白二世邀请,习近平主席于10月19日至23日对英国进行国事访问,这是中国国家主席十年来首次对英国事访问。双方一致认为,习近平主席此访是今年高层交往的高潮,为中英关系提供了历史性机遇。中英将共同致力于构建面向21世纪全球全面战略伙伴关系。此访开启了持久、开放、共赢的中英关系“黄金时代”。
    At the invitation of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, President Xi Jinping paid a state visit to the United Kingdom from October 19 to 23. This is the first state visit paid by a Chinese President to the UK in 10 years. Both sides agree that the State Visit, as the culmination of the high-level exchanges this year, provides a historic opportunity for China-UK relations. China and the UK are committed to building a global comprehensive strategic partnership for the 21st century. This visit opens a golden era in China-UK relations featuring enduring, inclusive and win-win cooperation.
 
    3. 10月26日,阿富汗东北部发生7.8级地震,此次地震已造成360多人死亡,数千人受伤,印度首都新德里也有震感。由于震中兴都库什山区通讯中断,死亡人数将会进一步上升。
    A major 7.8-magnitude earthquake struck the remote Afghan northeast on October 26, killing more than 360 people in Afghanistan and injuring thousands and sending shock waves as far as New Delhi. The death toll could climb in coming days because communications were down in much of the rugged Hindu Kush mountain range where the quake was centered.
 
国内新闻:China
    4. 10月12日,省长谢伏瞻在郑州会见了奥地利蒂罗尔州州长君特·普拉特一行,并续签两省州加强交流与合作备忘录。谢伏瞻说,河南省与蒂罗尔州自1999年9月结为友好省州以来,友好交往和经贸合作不断加深,希望借此次续签两省州加强交流与合作备忘录,继续巩固和发展两省州业已存在的友好关系,充分发挥各自优势,用好友好省州平台,推动省州全方位合作取得实质性进展。君特·普拉特表示蒂罗尔州愿意加强与河南的合作,密切人员往来,不断深化双方合作,为两省州友好关系的发展注入新活力。
    On October 12, Governor Xie Fuzhan met with Gunter Pratt, Governor of Tirol, Austria in Zhengzhou, and renewed the MOU signed between the two sides. Governor Xie said that since Henan and Tirol established sister-province/state relations in September 1999, friendly exchanges and economic and trade cooperation have been constantly deepened. He hoped that both sides could take the opportunity of renewing MOU to consolidate friendly relations, give full play to each other’s advantages, make good use of the exchange platforms, and strive for substantial progress of all-round cooperation. Governor Gunter Pratt said that Tirol is willing to strengthen cooperation with Henan, enhance people-to-people exchanges, and inject new vitality to the bilateral relations.
 
    5. 10月20日,省统计局发布的最新数据显示,前三季度,非金属矿物制品业、计算机通信和其他电子设备制造业、专用设备制造业、化学原料和化学制品制造业、农副食品加工业、通用设备制造业、食品制造业、金属制品业、有色金属冶炼和压延加工业、汽车制造业等10个行业是支撑全省规模以上工业增长的主要力量。这10个行业增加值合计同比增长11.9%,对全省规模以上工业增长的贡献率69.5%,拉动全省规模以上工业增长5.9个百分点。以“互联网+”等为代表的新产业、新业态引领作用明显,发展势头迅猛。
    Statistics released by Henan Provincial Bureau of Statistics on October 20th shows that in the first three quarters of this year, non-metallic mineral products industry, computer communications and other electronic equipment manufacturing, special equipment manufacturing, chemical raw materials and chemical products manufacturing, agricultural food processing, general equipment manufacturing, food manufacturing, metal products, non-ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing and automobile manufacturing are the main forces to bolster the province's industrial growth. The added value of the 10 industries enjoy a year-on-year growth of 11.9%, contributing 69.5% of Henan's above-scale industrial growth and driving the above-scale industry to increase by 5.9%. New industries and new business patterns represented by "Internet +" develop rapidly and play a leading role. 
 
    6. 10月26日,装载3.032吨澳大利亚冰鲜牛肉的华航CI0054航班从澳大利亚飞抵郑州新郑国际机场。这是河南进口肉类指定口岸获批后首次直接进口肉类产品,标志着我国首个不沿海、不沿江、不沿边的内陆进口肉类指定口岸正式启用。据悉,首批澳大利亚冰鲜牛肉进口量约150吨,将在近期陆续运抵新郑国际机场。
    On October 26, China Airlines CI0054 loading 3.032 tons of fresh beef from Australia landed in Zhengzhou  Xinzheng International airport. This was the first meat product directly imported since the designated port of meat importing in Henan was approved, marking the launch of first designated port of meat importing in China’s hinterland. It is reported that the first batch of fresh beef weighs about 150 tons and will arrive Zhengzhou Xinzheng International airport in succession recently.
 
    7. 11月7日,习近平主席在新加坡会见台湾领导人马英九,就推进两岸关系和平发展交换意见。这是中国内战(1946-49)以来两岸间第一次举行该规格会议。习近平与马英九在新加坡会中互相称呼对方为“先生”,并在会议结束后共进晚餐。
    Chinese President Xi Jinping met Taiwan’s leader Ma Ying-jeou in Singapore on November 7 and exchanged views on promoting the peaceful development of cross-straits relations. It was the first meeting of its kind from the two sides since the Chinese civil war (1946-49). Xi Jinping and Ma Ying-jeou addressed each other as "Mr" and had dinner after the meeting.(供稿人:丁锐、高阳)
习近平主席访英期间引用的经典名句
 
    1. 在中国,民本和法制思想自古有之,几千年前就有“民惟邦本,本固邦宁”的说法。
  In China, the concept of putting people first and following the rule of law emerged in the ancient times.
  典出:《尚书·五子之歌》
  原文:皇祖有训,民可近不可下,民惟邦本,本固邦宁。
  释义:祖先早就传下训诫,人民是用来亲近的,不能轻视与低看;人民才是国家的根基,根基牢固,国家才能安定。
 
    2.  凡是过去,皆为序章。
  What’s past is prologue.
  典出:莎士比亚戏剧《暴风雨》(The Tempest),第二幕第一场。
  释义:“以往的一切都只是个开场的引子”或“以往的只算得是序幕”。
 
    3. 志合者,不以山海为远。
  Nothing, not even mountains and oceans, can separate people with shared goals and vision.
  典出:晋·葛洪《抱朴子·博喻》
  原文:志合者,不以山海为远;道乖者,不以咫尺为近。故有跋涉而游集,亦或密迩而不接。
  释义:心志投合的双方,相隔山海之阻也不觉得遥远; 道不相同的两方,相处咫尺之近也不感觉亲密。所以,有些人、有些国家,跋山涉水而来,却交往密切; 相反,有些人、有些国家,一衣带水而居,却形同陌路 。
 
    4.  来而不可失者,时也;蹈而不可失者,机也。
  Opportunity may knock just once; grab it before it slips away.
  典出:苏轼《代侯公说项羽辞》
  释义:到来了就不该错过的,是时运;遇见了就不该流失的,是机遇。
 
    5.  履不必同,期于适足;治不必同,期于利民。
  People don’t need to wear the same shoes; they should find what suit their feet. Governments don’t have to adopt the same model of governance; they should find what benefits their people.
  典出:魏源《默觚下·治篇五》
  原文:江河百源,一趋于海,反江河之水而复归之山,得乎?履不必同,期于适足;治不必同,期于利民。
  释义:鞋子不必相同,期待的是它能适合脚。治理的方法不必相同,期待的是它能有利于人民。比喻重要的是要找到一条适合自己的路。
 
    6. “生存还是毁灭,这是一个问题。”哈姆雷特的这句话,给我留下了极为深刻的印象。
  “To be or not to be, that is the question.” This line from Hamlet has left a lasting impression on me.
  典出:莎士比亚《哈姆雷特》
  释义:面对父亲的猝然离世及母亲的改嫁,及叔父的篡位,哈姆雷特内心充满猜疑、矛盾、犹豫、痛苦,他觉得活着没有意义,但又不知死后会不会下地狱,面临着两难抉择。
 
    7.  凡益之道,与时偕行。
  All good principles should adapt to changing times to remain relevant.
  典出:《周易·益卦·彖传》
  原文:天施地生,其益无方。凡益之道,与时偕行。
释义:天施气于地,地受气而化生,正所谓“损上益下”。其施化之益,没有方向、处所的限制,可以说无所不至。因此,益之道就是:变通趋时,把握时机,做出正确的判断和选择。
(陈玮 摘编自中国日报、人民网)

 
一带一路英文译法规范
 
    近日,国家发展改革委会同外交部、商务部等部门对“一带一路”英文译法进行了规范。 
    一、在对外公文中,统一将“丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路”的英文全称译为“the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road”,“一带一路”简称译为“the Belt and Road”,英文缩写用“B&R”。 
    二“倡议”一词译为“initiative”,且使用单数。不使用“strategy”、“project”、“program”、“agenda”等措辞。
    三、考虑到“一带一路”倡议一词出现频率较高,在非正式场合,除首次出现时使用英文全称译文外,其简称译法可视情况灵活处理,除可使用“the Belt and Road Initiative”外,也可视情使用“the land and maritime Silk Road initiative”。其他译法不建议使用。

 
机场实用英语口语(入境篇)
 
  入境他国检验护照时移民官的询问常常会给旅行者带来一些困扰,本篇将列出一些放诸各国都基本适用的入境对话,详细研读后,下次再面对移民官时,你就可以从容不迫地回答问题了。
    May I see your passport, please?
    麻烦请给我你的护照。
    Here is my passport / Here it is.
    这是我的护照。
    Where are you staying?
    将在哪儿住宿?
    I will stay at Boston Hotel.
    我将住在波士顿饭店。
    What's the purpose of your visit?
    旅行的目的为何?
    Sightseeing/Business.
    观光/公务。
    Do you have a return ticket to Taiwan?
    是否有台湾回程机票?
    Yes, here it is.
    有的,这就是回程机票。
    How long will you be staying in the United States?
    预计在美国停留多久?
    I plan to stay for about 10 days.
    预计停留约10天。
    How much money do you have with you?
    你随身携带多少现金?
    I have 800 dollars.
    大约800美元。
    Good. Have a nice day.
    祝你玩得愉快。
    Thank you. I'm just passing through. I am leaving for Geneva tonight.
    谢谢。我只是过境而已。今晚即动身前往日内瓦。(供稿人:丁锐)

 
Year of China in South Africa
Henan Week
南非中国年河南周

 
    The capital city of Bokone Bophirima Province, Mahikeng, from Wednesday 28 to Friday 30 October was a hive of activities as Premier SOR Mahumapelo hosted a delegation from Henan Province in China led by Vice-Governor Li Ya, for what is dubbed “China Week in Bokone Bophirima Province”.
    10月28日至30日, “南非中国年—河南周”活动于南非西北省首府玛菲肯举办。西北省省长马赫马佩罗与河南省副省长李亚共同出席了主要活动。
    The Chinese’s visit to the Province follows the declaration of 2015 as the Year of China in South Africa by both Presidents Zuma of South Africa and Xi of China, with a view to strengthen economic, social and political relations between the two countries. 2014 was the Year of South Africa in China.
    此举是为落实南非祖玛总统与中国习近平主席关于举办“2015南非中国年”的重要共识,旨在加强双方经贸、社会及政治联系。2014年为“中国南非年”。
    Premier Mahumapelo and Vice-Governor Li Ya, after a meeting held on 30 October, have agreed to explore possibilities for future cooperation in the field of agriculture, culture, tourism and mining. The cooperation between the two Provinces will also focus on development programmes such as the Mahikeng Rebranding, Repositioning and Renewal Projects, establishment of cooperatives in rural areas, education and cultural heritage exchange programmes as well as comprehensive transport systems.
    马赫马佩罗省长和李亚副省长于10月30号的会谈中达成一致,未来将在农业、文化、旅游及矿业方面探索合作机会。两省合作也会关注玛菲肯的重塑形象、重新定位与复兴计划,以及在农村建立合作社、教育与文化遗产交流与综合交通体系项目。
    Key to the China Week in Bokone Bophirima’s three-day programme was the hosting of a business seminar that see business people from around the Province interacting with business associations from China on investment opportunities in the sectors of Agriculture, Culture, Tourism, Mining, Infrastructure and Construction.
    经贸论坛是为期三天的“河南周”活动的重头戏。来自农业、文化、旅游、矿业、基础设施建设等领域的西北省和中国相关企业探索了合作与投资的可能。
    Moreover, cultural groups from China showcased their dance and Kung Fu performances to the delegates and communities at the Mmabatho Convention Centre.
    另外,河南省的文化演出团体也在主会场姆玛巴托会议中心进行了歌舞及功夫表演。
(宋美扬子 编译自全非新闻综合网站和南非政府官方网站)
 

 
Family Planning
计划生育政策

China allows all couples to have two children
中国允许所有夫妇生育二胎

 
    China has abandoned its more than 35-year-old “one-child policy”. Now couples can have two.
    中国废除了拥有35余年历史的“独生子女政策。现在,夫妇可以生育二胎。
    Chinese demographers had been worrying aloud for years about China’s rapidly ageing population and plunging birth rate and the impact these trends would have on the country’s economy. On October 29th the Communist Party finally ended the “one-child policy” that has been widely—often excessively—blamed for exacerbating these problems. Now couples will be allowed to have two.
    中国快速的人口老龄化、急剧跳水的出生率以及由此可能引发的对本国经济的冲击,已让中国的人口学家们长期“夜不能寐”。曾几何时,独生子女政策由于加剧了前述问题的严重性而广受诟病,而就在10月29日,中国政府最终让这一政策“寿终正寝”—夫妻可以生育二胎。
    It had already made several adjustments to the policy since it was introduced in 1979. These have long allowed those living in the countryside to have two children under certain conditions—if the first child is a girl, for example. In urban areas, the party allowed couples to have two children if both parents were themselves only children. It relaxed this in 2013, allowing couples to have two if only one parent meets that requirement. Ethnic minorities (less than 10% of the population) are often allowed two or more.
    生育政策自1979年颁布以来几经修订。中国农村一直允许生育二胎,但需要满足一定条件,如第一胎为女孩等。在城市,政府允许夫妻生育二胎,但前提是夫妻双方均为独生子女。2013年,生育政策进一步放宽,只要夫妻双方有一方是独生子女,就能生育二胎。允许少数民族(占中国总人口不到10%)生育二胎或多胎。
    Now the party has relaxed somewhat more. The reason not to celebrate is that it is far from clear that the change will have much of an impact on the birth rate. After the previous relaxation was introduced in 2013, the government expected that 2m couples would try for a second child under the new rules within the first year. By the end of 2014 fewer than 1.1m had applied. The party has set no timetable for removing restrictions   altogether.
    如今,政府在生育问题上已经作出了进一步的放宽。但现在还不能高兴太早,因为改变生育政策是否会切实提高生育率还不明确。2013年生育政策进一步放宽后,政府预计在新政策颁布一年内会有大约200万对夫妻生育二胎。但是截至2014年底,只有不到110万对夫妻申请二胎。在全面放开生育的问题上,政府方面并没有明确时限。(编译自《经济学人》)

 
浅议商品品牌翻译
 
 
     在“一带一路”战略和“互联网+”发展新形态的时代背景下,我国跨境贸易电子商务迅猛发展,逐渐成外贸增长的新引擎。越来越多国外商品通过跨境电商进入中国市场,满足国内消费者不断增长的全球化购物新需求。随着国外商品大量涌入国内市场,商品品牌和名称的翻译工作任务量急剧增大,但这方面的工作做得远远不够。本文从日常工作所接触到的翻译实践中,谈一下商品品牌翻译过程中的心得体会。
    尤金·奈达的功能对等翻译理论认为:翻译的恰如其分需要依赖很多方面,其中包括目的语读者是谁,译本作何之用,翻译的目的是什么,是告之,取悦,还是推销产品。商品翻译的根本目的在于营销,成功的商品翻译是向消费者推销商品、激发消费者购买欲望的重要保证。下面是在具体翻译实践中用到的一些翻译策略和方法:
    一、音译,这是商品翻译中比较常见的方法之一,用汉语中与源语商品名读音相近的字或相同的词进行替代。例如德国著名奶粉品牌 Aptamil ,中文译名为“爱他美”,一看便知是由英文名称音译而来,译名在保持与源语发音基本相似的情况下,有意选择了与产品特性有关的汉字“爱”和“美”,表达喜爱宝宝和希望健康美丽的含义,能够激发中国消费者尤其是年轻父母们的购买欲望。类似的例子还有德国奶粉品牌Hipp“喜宝”,护发染发品牌Schwarzkopf“施华蔻”,护肤品牌Nivea“妮维雅”,意大利果酱蜂蜜品牌Rigoni“瑞歌”等。
    二、直译,指直接按照字面上的意思翻译。这种方法适用于翻译商品名在源语和译语文化中具有相同或相似的联想意义。例如意大利著名精油沐浴乳Tesori d' Oriente,按照字面意思直译为“东方宝石”,无论是源语还是译名都带有一种异域风情和独特的奢华气质,能给人尤其是女性消费者留下深刻印象。再如意大利清洗品牌Chante Clair“大公鸡管家”,美国内衣品牌Victoria’s Secret直译为“维多利亚的秘密”等。
    三、意译,指的是不直接采用其字面意思,根据商品的特性和功能,把商品名所要表达的内涵和意境给翻译出来。例如德国营养品牌Floradix,中文译名为“铁元”,就是根据其主要功效来翻译的,能够让人了解到该产品具有补铁功效,同时“元”也有元气、根本之意,非常符合中国文化背景。这里再举几个例子如美国女性保健用品品牌Whisper译成“护舒宝”,婴儿卫生品牌 Pampers译为“帮宝适”,和英国化妆品品牌The Body Sop“美体小铺”等。
    四、移译,也称“零翻译”,是指将源语中的词汇直接“移植”到目的语当中。这是因为有些商品品牌由几个字母、数字或符号组成,简单好记但不好译,所以采用移译的方法不进行翻译,如日本化妆品品牌SK-II、美国雪地靴品牌UGG、意大利果汁品牌1due3等。
以上几种翻译方法是对商品品牌翻译方法所做的一些总结,但这还远远不够。因为商品品牌翻译不仅是一个语言转换的过程,也是一种文化转换的过程,翻译商品品牌不但要掌握一定的翻译技巧和方法,还要熟悉不同语言背后所承载的文化,同时考虑译语消费者的风俗习惯、审美心理等因素,因此在这些方面多下功夫才能把商品品牌的翻译工作做好。(供稿人:河南省保税物流中心吴冰)  
                                               
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