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汉英口译中表达多样性浅析

文章来源:翻译室  发布时间:2016-08-03

    汉英口译中,译员应在同一语境下尽可能丰富目标语言的表达方式,避免表达的机械化和单一性。从以下例子可以看出,源语言讲话人的意思可以在目标语中实现多种形式的表达:
    一、表示“增长”或“上升”的词语
    1. Grow: to increase in size,number, strength or quality  扩大;增加;增强
    The company’s profits grew by 5% last year.
    去年公司的利润增加了5%。
    In the second quarter, we have seen smooth growth of the domestic demand, which is a key pillar of Chinese economy.
    第二季度,作为中国经济重要支柱的内需实现平稳增长。
    2. Increase(动词): to become or to make sth greater in amount, number, value, etc. 增长;增多;增加
    The rate of inflation increased by 2%.
    通货膨胀率增长了2%。
    We need to increase productivity.
    我们需要提高生产力。
    Increase(名词): a rise in the amount, number or value of sth 增长;增多;增加
    An increase of nearly 20%
    近20%的增长
    3. Surge(动词): (of prices, profits,etc.) to suddenly increase in value 物价、利润等急剧上升;飞涨;激增
    Share prices surged.
    股价猛涨。
    Surge(名词): a sudden increase in the amount or number of sth (数量上)急剧上升,激增
    We are having trouble keeping up with the recent surge in demand.
    我们难以满足近来迅猛增长的需求。
    4. Jump(动词): to rise suddenly by a large amount  突升;猛涨
    Sales jumped from $2.7 billion to $3.5 billion.
    销售额从27亿美元猛增至35亿美元。
    5. Soar(动词): to rise very quickly  急升;猛增
    Unemployment has soared to 18%.
    失业率猛升到了18%。
    6. Rise(动词): to increase in amount or number(数量)增加;提高
    For the first half of 2016, the country's CPI rose (by) 2.1 percent on an annual basis, while this year's annual target was set at around three percent.
    2016年上半年,我国消费者物价指数较去年同比增长2.1%,而今年全年增长目标为3%左右。
    7. Expand(动词): to become greater in size, number or importance 增加、增强(尺码、数量或是重要性)
    Gross domestic product expanded by 6.7% in the first half of this year, China's statistics bureau said.
    国家统计局数据显示,我国国内生产总值今年上半年增长6.7%。
    二、表示“下降”或“减少”的词语
    1. Decline(动词): to become smaller, fewer, weaker, etc. 减少;下降;衰弱
    The number of tourists to the resort declined by 10% last year.
    去年这个景点的旅游人数减少了10%。
    Decline(名词): a continuous decrease in the number, value, quality, etc. of sth (数量、价值、质量等的)减少、下降、衰退
    An increase in cars has resulted in the decline of public transport.
    私家车数量的增加导致了公共交通使用的减少。
    2. Dip(动词): to go downwards or to a lower level 下降;下沉
    Sales for this quarter have dipped from $38.7 million to $33 million.
    本季度销售额从3870万美元下降到3300万美元。
    Dip(名词): a decrease in the amount or success of sth, usually for only a short period (通常指暂时的)减少、下降、衰退
    A sharp dip in profits
    利润骤减
    3. Fall(动词): to decrease in amount, number or strength(数量)减少,下降;(强度)减少
    Data showed that the company’s profits have fallen by 30%.
    数据显示,公司的利润减少了30%。
    Fall(名词): a decrease in size, number, rate or level 减小;减少;降低
    A big fall in unemployment
    失业率大幅下降
    4. Slowdown: a reduction in speed or activity 减缓;减速
    The world's second-largest economy China has recently seen a slowdown in growth due to  weak demand at home and abroad, cooling investments and excess industrial capacity.
    由于国内外需求减弱、投资热度下降和产能过剩,世界第二大经济体中国近期经济增长有所放缓。
    5. Tumble(动词): to fall rapidly in value or amount(数量或价格)暴跌、骤降
    Oil prices tumbled again Wednesday.
    周三油价再次大幅下跌。
    Tumble(名词): a sudden fall 暴跌
    Share prices took a sharp tumble following news of merger.
    兼并消息传出,股价随即暴跌。
    6. Plummet: to fall suddenly and quickly from a high level or position  暴跌;速降
    Major animal diseases are under control with incidence plummeting.
      随着发病率急速下降,主要动物疾病得到控制。
    三、英语中表示“说”的词语
    汉英口译中,由于源语言结构较为复杂,且包含意义较为深刻,这就要求我们在理解源语言讲话人态度及意思的基础上,在目标语中选择合适的词汇,以此来提高用词的准确度。外事英语口译中,在流畅、达意的基础上,提高选词、用词的准确度十分重要,在重要外事场合中甚至涉及双方立场。
    最常用的为speak; say; tell三个词,用法较为简单,不再一一阐述。
    1. Zhu acknowledges that there are still many problems in the trial process.
    朱承认实验过程中仍有很多问题。
    Acknowledge: to accept that sth is true 承认(属实)
    2. Zhang added that government investment will continue to focus on infrastructure construction that affects quality of life.
    张接着说,政府将继续加大在民生基础设施建设方面的投资。
   Add: to say sth more; to make a further remark  补充说;继续说
    3. He admitted his guilt to the police.
    他向警察承认了自己的罪行。
    Admit:to agree, often unwillingly, that sth is true  勉强承认;to say that you have done sth    wrong or illegal 承认(过错、罪行)
    4. He affirmed to me that the statement was true.
    他断言这份声明属实。
    Affirm: (formal) to sate firmly or publicly that sth is true or that you support sth strongly  肯定属实;申明;断言
    5. He is alleged to have mistreated the prisoners.
    他被指控虐待犯人。
    Allege: (often passive; formal) to state sth as a fact but without giving proof (未提供证据)断言;声称
    6. The boy claimed to have told the truth.
    这个男孩声称自己说出了事实。
    Claim: to say sth is true although it has not been proved and other people may not believe it  宣称;断言;声称
    7. She complained that he had been rude to her.
    她抱怨他对自己很粗鲁。
    8. The government has declared a state of emergency.
    政府已宣布进入紧急状态。
    Declare: to say officially or publicly  公布;宣布;宣告
    9. He has already stated his intention to run for election.
    他声明打算参加竞选。
    State: to formally write or say sth, especially in a careful and clear way 陈述;说明
 

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